Found in: Provinces of Saudi Arabia
Najran is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. It has an area of 119,000 km. Its capital is Najran. Najran is populated by Yam tribe, a strong and brave tribe, since hundreds of years ago. King Abdulaziz, the founder of Saudi Arabia, could not force them to enter under his control. Therefore, he made an agreement with them to give them the freedom to practice their religious activities and they accepted being a part of Saudi Arabia. A large proportion of the population belongs to the Sulemani a branch of Ismailism which is a branch of Shiite Islam. In April 2000, armed Shiites in Najran rose up against Saudi security forces charging that the Saudi government had failed to commit to the agreement between the Najranis and King Abdulaziz.
The population of Najran is about six hundred thousand people. Like its surrounding area Najran has a great share of development in all fields such as construction, agriculture, health and other services which king Fahads government has provided to the citizens everywhere. These services have provided a good living, and prosperous life under the protection of security and safety.
The location of Najran lies in the south-west of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia between latitude 17 degree and 20 degree northern and 52 degree in the eastern. Najran is bounded on the east by Empty Quarter desert, on the west by Asir area from the west, Riyadh in the north, and Yemen in the south.
Najran is characterized by its moderate climate, by moderate humidity in winter, cold in the mountainous regions, but extreme heat in the summer. Rainfall is moderate in winter, and it is very often heavy in summer. Because of the change in the altitude, the heat varies from 14 to 30 degrees Celsius.
Najran is considered the third largest city. It is more than three hundred and sixty thousand km with this distinct place. Najran contains three geographical environments. First, the flat region which lies in the middle of Najran and represents the history and human. It has several valleys. The most famous is Najrans valley. Second, the mountainous region is in the west and the north. There the weather is moderate in summer. It has several beautiful parks such as shadowy and nabk trees. It has important government centers. They are Habuna government, Badr EL-junoob government, Yadmah government, and that government that won king Fahads attention because it has mineral wealth. The most important of all is the gold area which gold was mined well that lies in El-johns area, which follows Safah center. Many of the mountains are distinguished by granite rocks that produce marble and granite. Its productions cover a big
part of the kingdoms needs. Third, the sand region is in the east and it is a part of Empty Quarter desert. It is really rich in oil.
The name of Najran
The name of Najran means the piece of wood in which the hinge of the door goes around. The word of Najran means the thirsty, too. In another narration, the name was attributed to Najran Ibn zaidan Ibn Sabaa Ibn Yashgab Ibn yareb Ibn Gahtan because he is the first person who came to Najran and peopled it.
Najran valley dam
Najran valley dam is considered as one of the most important distinct civil places in Najran region because of it is special position and it is a beautiful and wonderful scene. It is far away, 35 km from Najran .On this dam, there is a road 4.5 metiers wide. It was built from concrete blocks. Furthermore, it has a system of water pipes in the dam which keeps the water cold.
King Fahad Park
It is located in the south of Najran valley. It is considered as one of the biggest parks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is area is 400,000 m and there are Al-Semmar tress which make up space of green and shade in spring season. It has got 20,000 Seder tress; it has got 300,000 m green grass areas and 10,000 roses. It also got 1200 orange lemon and mandarin tress. It has got 100 date trees. It has got 400 fig trees and 400 olive trees and 250 of Al-Kharoob tress.
It is one of the most beautiful places distinct in Najran. The people of Najran look at waterfall unique civil place. It was built by in a unique architecture style. Waterfalls from up to down in a beautiful and perfect way. You can watch this waterfall from a long distance.
The most famous dishes
The most famous dishes in Najran include: Al-Burr. It is a breakfast meal which consists of bread made from wheat and flour. It is mixed and given the round ball shape and a hole is made to put milk, or honey, or dates honey on it. Al-Wafed is a thick kind of bread made of wheat and is also made in round shape. It is served in Al-Matrah beside Al- Marg. Al-maasooba it is made of corn flour meshed and some soup added is to make it soft, and it is usually served in a special ceremonies. Al-Ruksh is a soft kind of bread which comes in the shape of slice and it is served in the pot made of stone and then it is mixed with the soup. Al- Margoog consists of dough which is cut into small slices and it is cooked with soup and vegetables.
Najran has some folk arts including the traditional clay considered to be among the most beautiful in Arabic area. The houses are built of light tan clay in the shape of a rectangle. On the other hand, Najran has different kinds of traditional dance. For example, Al-Zamil which is an enthusiastic kind of poetry refers to special occasion in which so many men share together in the middle of a circle formed by old men. The stanzas of Al-Zamil are chosen carefully to express the subject for the occasion. Furthermore, Al-Zamil is considered to express emotions, and some time for apologies. Al-Razffah describes a dance which is used for wedding, or for happy occasions. Choirs come into rows and they sing poetry, and their countrys glory they are usually they for beautiful girls, and for the emotions. Al-Razffah has a special time and special voice. Between the two rows two men meet each other and they dance in specific movements holding stilettos or sticks in their hands.
Minosa, Tchekof. Najran: Desert Garden of Arabia. Paris: Scorpio Editer, n.d